The historical reference of the Lugovoy park


The Lugovoy park of Petrodvoretz is a part of a historical palace-park, situated on the area of more than 1000 he, which has national and international value. The park is a monument of the landscape architecture of the19 century. It was planned as a landscape park. In terrain of a park there is the unique hydraulic engineering system: channels, ponds - stores, airlocks - regulators built on an intention of Peter I for providing water for fountains of Petrodvoretz and Strelna. The uniqueness of a hydraulic-circuit system is, that it’s permanent functioning is provided by the expense of natural water resources.

The plan of the Lugovoy park was constructed in such a manner that its road network connected all parks around Peterhof: the Lower and Upper parks, the Alexandria, the Alexandrijski, the English and others. In terrain of the Lugovoy park the pavilions with summer-houses were built to admire ambient landscapes. The architectural facilities mated both utilitarian, and aesthetic functions (the Grinding mill, the Belveder palace, the Pink pavilion, the simulated Ruin etc.).

On the south from the front entrance to the Upper garden, along the Samsonovskaja pipe line, the parkway, lined with lindens stretches. It ends near the Pink pavilion by a major composite point of a Lugovoy park.

The accomplishment of a park was rather complex and has taken about three decades. It was built up on moors and peasant fields, and not by one but several architects. E.A.Peterson was an author of the idea of creating simulated meadows, an architect A.Schtakenschneider projected the buildings. I.Pilsudzki scheduled the plans of ponds united by channels and airlocks. Roads, landed arbors and bushes, small gardens at pavilions were formed according to the projects of the garden foreman P.Erlera.

Main role in creating the composition of the new park belonged to meadows and ponds - water storage basins. Along ten ponds, united by channels, separate segments of the Lugovoy park are situated.

The central route intersecting all these segments, is the Samsonovskij channel. It connects the Babigonskaja high ground from east and, extending, finishes near the Pink pavilion by the Samsonovskij basin ”. Near the foot of the Babigonskaja high ground the airlock is arranged. With it’s help the water goes to the western group of ponds of the Lugovoy park — the Church, the Babigonskij, the Ruinnyj, the Field-engineer, the Eagle and the Spare ponds.

Downstream there is a second airlock to launch water into ponds. It is arranged to the east of a channel: the Mill, the Large round and the Small round ponds.

At the device of the Lugovoy park all ponds were surrounded by avenues; for each airlock there were small houses; the trees and bushes were planted near pavilions, bridges, on islands, along the roads. But the main terrain of a park was taken by natural forests, meadows and fields.

In 1845-1848 years A.Schtakenschneider constructed the Pink, or the Ozerkovyj, pavilion. The building was placed on a pier almost surrounded by three united pools: the Samsonievskij basin, the Large round and the Mill ponds. As well as the pavilion of the Caricyn island, this construction was skillfully made out in a style of ancient Rome country houses. The front entrance was decorated by an open portico, a shed above which supported by germs (tetrahedral piles with the sight of heads overhead) from grey granite made by the sculptor A.Terebenev. The portico was hidden in ivy, and a beautiful statue of the Italian sculptor Barucci “ a Sleeping nymph ” raised in green twilight inside of it. The 2-floored turret with open terrace overhead gave to a building an unusual poetics. The garden around the pavilion impressed by refinement of flower lawns, bridges, terraces near ponds, variety of sculptural ornament.

During the Great Patriotic war the Pink pavilion was destroyed..

The Mill pond is from the eastern part of the Pink pavilion. Here is the history of its title. In 1847 the chief of palace board S.Lihardov informed the ministry of a court yard, that there was no grinding mill in Peterhoff. That’s why the peasants of neighboring villages took their grain on beating for 15 versts. It took them more than one day. Concerned by such a long absence of the peasants, who totally belonged to the palace board, Lihardov offered to build a grinding mill “ at the airlock above the Samsonovskij channel ”.

The proposal was approved. The project of a grinding mill “ in agricultural style ” was compounded by A.Schtakenschneider. That was a double-storied building. The ground floor was made of stone, the second — of wood. In the first floor there were two sets moved by water wheel. The composite gear of a grinding mill was produced by a peasant of the Kostroma province Michail Maximov.

On the second story there were two poor rooms, is retiring arranged inside. The members of the tzar family and their friends used to have some rest here during their walks. Accustomed to a palace luxury they played “ poor life of a peasant ”.

Accumbent to a grinding mill segment was drained, roads were made, flower gardens were set up, houses for the miller and the watchman were built. During the war the building of the grinding mill was erased. In 1963 instead of the wood airlock there was arranged a concrete strip with two shutters for the water passing to the Samsonievskij basin and the Mill pond.

In a chain of pools of the Lugovoy park the relevant place belongs to the Spare pond. Built in the XIX century, it was repeatedly wided. In 1834, when the creation of the park started, A.Sxhtakenschneider constructed an agricultural Nikolskij house on it’s coast near the airlock. The wooden double storied building with a carved porch, wooden balconies and painted shutters resembled Russian peasant hut. The guarding house, wooden gates and a high fence with Nikolskij house itself created a view of Russian peasant manor. Near the house the small garden was set up and the tracks in a border of willows were made around the pond.

The ensemble of Nikolskij house was particularly saved up to now, and the Spare pond is still one of the most picturesque places of the Lugovoy park. The water comes to the Spare pond from the Eagle pond. In this pool there is a small island, where the Klodt’s sculptural group “Eagles, attacking the ram “was set. Unfortunately we can’t see this sculpture nowadays.

From the Eagle pond along the channel it is possible to approach to the Ruin pond. On one of the islands in 1852 A.Schtakenschneider’s "Ruins" were est: five mottled strings, and chunks of relief tables, statues, parts of eaves nearby. “Ruins” resembled the broken Greek temple in this quite part of the park..

The Field-engineer pond is to the west from the road Peterhoff - Belveder. The camps of Field-Engineering battalion and pupils of an engineering school were organized here every summer in the XIX cent.. In 1852 the figure of eagle with extended wings was set on a massive boulder of the pond. Under the eagle there was a copper board with a placard: “ To the heroic deeds of leib-guards Field-Engineering battalion ”. Through the narrow channel from the Field-Engineer pond the water left for the Black pond of the English Garden.

Above on flow, near the foot of one of the Babigonskije hills, the Babigonskij and the Church ponds were arranged (connected by a channel). The terrain around these pools was skillfully equipped at the period of designing the Lugovoy park. Near the ponds tracks were cleared, trees and bushes were planted. On a low long peninsula of the Babigonskij pool the foundry iron summer-house with two strings was built.

Belveder was the main facility of the Lugovoy park. On the highest point of the Babigonskaja high ground A.Schtakenschneider set a large pavilion. The rectangular double storied building is erected on the massive granite basis. The ceremonial stairway of the white marble ends by portico with caryotides of serdobolic granite along the project of the sculptor A.Terbenev. Twenty eight strings from the same kind of granite, on the ground floor, support the roof and an orderly colonnade encompasses the first floor from different directions. The apertures between them are filled with low-level tracery grating.

There is a vast hall with ten mottled strings and transparent floor on the first story. On the second story the hall is totally surrounded by the open terrace. The broad panorama of the Lugovoy park, the Ropshynskije ridges, Petrodvorets with its gardens, the Finland bay opens from the terrace. This capability to admire the unique beauty of this terrain predetermined the construction of the pavilion reminding the architecture and planning of the Ancient Greek temple. That’s why it is called “Belveder” (“a fine, beautiful view”).

Belveder was constructed in 1852-1856 years. A small garden was set up near it along the slope. On the sides of the ceremonial stairway two horse groups by Klodt were set. The sculptures were likethose that areset on the Anichkov bridge in St.-Petersburg. On the distance of 300 m from pavilion, near the Church pond, Schtakenschneider constructed a church in the old Russian style. It was famous for the wood carved iconostas made by the foremans at the beginning of the XVIII century. It was transferred from the church of Peter I in Dubki (near Sestroreck), where there is one of the Peter’s palaces.

During the Great Patriotic war the pavilion was damaged, its sculptural decoration was erased by the invaders, the church was broken down. Now the belvedere is restored (architect D.Krasovskij). Near it a one-storied semicircular sanatorium "A Builder" was constructed from the west side.

The Lugovoy park with an extensive network of roads and pavilions served for distant walks of the tzar’s family’s guests. In summer illuminations, concerts and performances were staged. For example, in 1851 in the Samsonovskij basin, in front of the Pink pavilion, on a gantry arranged directly on water, the ballet “ A Naiad and a fisherman ”(staged by a ballet-master of the Mariinski thatre Perro) took place. This ballet was described in the book of M.Korsini “ Peterhof and a Peterhof’s holiday ”: “ the Effect of this ballet was striking: naiads really swam up in the lake towards the scene on small shell boats: the scenery was served by century ancient trees. In the distance the villages of Babij Gon were seen.They were illuminated in such a way that the lineament of each hut was visible from the distance. This evening all illumination of Peterhof was spread through 5 versts ”.

The Lugovoy park has no clear borders and its landscapes merge with an agricultural landscape of central region. Therefore it’s area was calculated variously. Under the data of 1957 the area of a park made about 80 hectares. It is the only park in Russia, where spaces not planted with trees make three quarters of all area. The main role here is played by man-made meadows and pools. The ponds of the fountain culvert take thirty hectares — it’s almost the third part of central region of the park.

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